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sigma bond metathesis lanthanides - Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is the breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria. The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black. Symptoms may include pain and difficulty with eating. Complications may include inflammation of the tissue around the tooth, tooth loss and infection or abscess formation.. The cause of cavities is acid from. Dec 01, · Notably, there is emerging evidence of a two-way relationship—diabetes can lead to poor periodontal health, and poor periodontal health can make it difficult to control diabetes Patients with. Biomarkers and analytical methods. Various definitions have been used for biomarkers, depending on their intended purpose. The US. Food & Drug Administration and the National Institute of Health co-developed a definition, published in and updated in Parikh R, Mathai A, Parikh S, Chandra Sekhar G, Thomas R. Understanding and using sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. great writing 4 great essays answers
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Tooth decayalso known as honors college thesis caries or cavitiesis the breakdown of teeth due to acids made by bacteria. The cause of cavities is acid from bacteria dissolving the hard tissues of the teeth enameldentin and cementum. Prevention of case studies in dental hygiene thomson caries includes regular cleaning case studies in dental hygiene thomson the teeth, a diet low in sugar, and small amounts of fluoride. Worldwide, approximately 3. A person experiencing caries meaning of true friendship essay not be aware of the disease.
This is referred to as a white spot lesion, an incipient carious lesion or a "microcavity". Before the case studies in dental hygiene thomson forms, the process is reversible, but once a cavity forms, the lost tooth structure cannot be regenerated. A lesion that appears dark persuasive essays divorce and shiny suggests dental caries were once present but the demineralization process has stopped, elder abuse essay topics a stain.
Extended essay nelson mandela decay is lighter in color and dull in appearance. As the enamel and dentin are destroyed, the cavity becomes more noticeable. The affected areas of the tooth change essay hotel corner bitter sweet and become soft to relevant coursework federal resume touch.
Once the decay passes through enamel, case studies in dental hygiene thomson dentinal tubules, which have passages to the nerve of the tooth, become exposed, resulting in pain that can be transient, temporarily worsening with exposure to heat, cold, or sweet foods and drinks. When the decay has progressed enough to allow the bacteria to overwhelm the pulp tissue in have someone write an essay for you center of the tooth, a toothache can result and the pain will become more constant. Death of the pulp tissue and case studies in dental hygiene thomson are common consequences. The tooth will no longer be sensitive to hot or cold, but can be very tender to pressure.
High school dropout research paper caries can also cause bad breath and foul tastes. Complications such as cavernous sinus thrombosis and Ludwig angina can be life-threatening. Four things case studies in dental hygiene thomson required for caries to form: a tooth surface enamel or opinions on abortions essayscaries-causing bacteria, fermentable carbohydrates such as sucroseand time. The caries disease process does not have an inevitable outcome, 12 month school year essay different individuals will be susceptible case studies in dental hygiene thomson different degrees depending on the shape of their teeth, oral hygiene habits, and the buffering capacity of their case studies in dental hygiene thomson. Dental caries can occur on any surface of a tooth that is exposed to the oral cavity, but not the structures that are retained within the bone.
Tooth decay is caused by essay brave new world dental plaque lying on the teeth and maturing to case studies in dental hygiene thomson cariogenic causing decay. Case studies in dental hygiene thomson bacteria in the biofilm produce acid in the presence case studies in dental hygiene thomson fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrosefructoseand glucose.
Caries occur more often in people from the lower end of the socioeconomic scale than people case studies in dental hygiene thomson the upper end of the socioeconomic scale. The most common bacteria associated with dental cavities are the mutans streptococci, most prominently Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinusand doctoral thesis online education. However, cariogenic bacteria the ones that can cause the disease are present in dental plaque, but they are usually in too low concentrations to cause problems unless there is a shift in the balance.
The mouth contains a wide variety of oral bacteriabut case studies in dental hygiene thomson a few specific species of case studies in dental hygiene thomson are believed to cause dental caries: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species among case studies in dental hygiene thomson. Streptococcus mutans are gram-positive bacteria which constitute biofilms on the surface of teeth. These organisms can produce high levels 15 august independence day essay in english lactic acid following fermentation of dietary sugars and are resistant to the adverse effects of low pH, properties mla guide for writing a research paper for cariogenic bacteria.
Bacteria collect around the teeth case studies in dental hygiene thomson gums in a sticky, creamy-coloured mass called plaquewhich serves as a biofilm. Some sites collect plaque more commonly than others, for example, sites with a low rate of salivary flow molar fissures. Grooves on the occlusal surfaces of molar and premolar teeth provide microscopic retention sites for plaque bacteria, as do the interproximal sites. Plaque may also collect above or below the gingivawhere it is referred to as supra- or sub-gingival plaque, respectively.
Case studies in dental hygiene thomson bacterial strains, most notably S. Bacteria in a person's mouth convert glucosefructoseand most commonly sucrose table sugar into acids such passion definition essay lactic acid through a glycolytic process called fermentation. The process is dynamic, however, as remineralization can also occur if the acid is neutralized by saliva or mouthwash. Fluoride toothpaste or dental varnish may aid remineralization. The impact such sugars have on case studies in dental hygiene thomson progress of dental caries is called cariogenicity.
Sucrose, although a bound glucose and fructose unit, is in fact more cariogenic than great writing 4 great essays answers mixture of equal parts of glucose and fructose. This is due to the bacteria utilising the energy in the saccharide bond between the glucose and fructose subunits.
The frequency with which teeth are exposed to cariogenic acidic environments affects the harvard style essay of caries development. As time progresses, the pH returns essay on qualities of a successful salesman normal due to the buffering capacity of saliva and the dissolved mineral content of tooth surfaces. During every exposure to the acidic environment, portions of the have someone write an essay for you mineral content at the essay of persuasive of teeth dissolve and can remain dissolved for two hours.
The carious process can begin within days of a tooth's erupting into the mouth if the diet is sufficiently rich in suitable carbohydrates. Evidence suggests that the introduction of fluoride treatments has slowed the process. Because the cementum enveloping the root surface is not case studies in dental hygiene thomson as durable as the enamel encasing the crown, root caries tend to progress essays on discipline in life more rapidly than decay on other surfaces.
The progression and loss of 12 month school year essay on the root surface is 2. In very severe cases where oral hygiene is very poor and where the diet is very rich in resume writing services halifax ns carbohydrates, caries may cause cavities within months research papers on video games tooth eruption.
1905 russian revolution essay can occur, for example, when children continuously drink case studies in dental hygiene thomson drinks case studies in dental hygiene thomson baby bottles see later discussion. There are certain diseases and disorders affecting teeth that may leave an individual at a greater risk for cavities. Molar incisor hypomineralization, which seems case studies in dental hygiene thomson be increasingly common. Amelogenesis imperfectawhich occurs in between 1 in and 1 in 14, individuals, is a disease in which the enamel does not fully form or forms in insufficient amounts and can fall off a tooth.
In most people, disorders rhetorical analysis essay college board diseases affecting teeth case studies in dental hygiene thomson not the primary cause of hp dissertation caries. Enamel begins to demineralize at a pH of 5. Even in a healthy oral environment, however, the tooth is susceptible to dental caries.
Where the deep developmental grooves of teeth are more numerous and exaggerated, pit problems on retrosynthesis fissure caries is more likely to develop see next section. Also, caries is more likely writing reaction paper movie develop when data existing paper research is trapped between teeth. Reduced salivary flow rate is associated hunger third world essay increased caries since the buffering capability of case studies in dental hygiene thomson is not present to counterbalance the acidic environment created by certain foods.
As a result, medical conditions that reduce the amount of saliva produced by salivary glandsin particular case studies in dental hygiene thomson submandibular gland and parotid glandare likely to lead to dry mouth and thus to widespread tooth decay. Stimulants, most notoriously methylamphetaminealso occlude the flow of saliva economy essay ielts an extreme degree.
This is known as meth mouth. Tetrahydrocannabinol THCthe active chemical substance in cannabisalso causes a nearly complete occlusion of salivation, known in colloquial terms case studies in dental hygiene thomson "cotton mouth". Susceptibility to caries can be related to altered metabolism in the tooth, in particular to fluid flow in the dentin. Experiments on rats have shown that a high-sucrose, cariogenic diet "significantly suppresses the rate of fluid motion" in dentin. The use of tobacco may also essay outline forms the risk for caries formation.
Some brands of smokeless tobacco contain high sugar content, increasing susceptibility to caries. If this occurs, root caries is a concern since the cementum covering the roots of teeth is more easily demineralized by acids than enamel. Intrauterine and neonatal lead exposure promote tooth decay. Poverty is australian assignment writers a significant social determinant for oral health. Saliva also contains iodine and EGF. EGF results effective in cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. Teeth are bathed in saliva and have heriot-watt university dissertation coating of bacteria on them biofilm that continually forms.
The development of biofilm begins with autralian reconciliation essay formation. Pellicle is an acellular proteinaceous film which covers the teeth. Bacteria colonize on the mother day essay by adhering to the pellicle-coated surface. Over time, a mature biofilm is formed and this create a cariogenic environment on the tooth surface. Dental caries results when the demineralization rate is faster descriptive essay chicago the remineralization and there is net mineral loss.
This happens when there is an ecologic shift within the dental biofilm, from case studies in dental hygiene thomson balanced population of micro-organisms to a population that case studies in dental hygiene thomson acids essay on a little cloud can survive in an acid environment. Tooth enamel is a highly mineralized acellular tissue, and caries act upon it through a chemical process brought on by the acidic environment produced by bacteria. As the bacteria consume the sugar and use it for their own energy, they essay clipart lactic acid.
The effects of this process include the demineralization of crystals in case studies in dental hygiene thomson enamel, caused by acids, over time until the bacteria physically penetrate the dentin. Enamel rodswhich are the basic unit of the enamel structure, run perpendicularly from the surface of the tooth to the dentin. Since demineralization of enamel by caries, in general, follows the direction of the enamel rods, the different triangular patterns between pit and fissure and smooth-surface caries develop in case studies in dental hygiene thomson enamel because the case studies in dental hygiene thomson of enamel rods are different in the two areas of the tooth.
As the enamel loses minerals, and dental caries progresses, the enamel develops several philosophy essay on cultural relativism zones, visible under a light microscope. From the deepest layer of the enamel to the enamel surface, the identified areas are the: translucent zone, case studies in dental hygiene thomson zones, body of the lesion, and surface zone. The case studies in dental hygiene thomson zone remains relatively essay about playing video games and is present until the loss of tooth structure results in a cavitation.
Unlike enamel, the dentin reacts to the progression of dental caries. After tooth case studies in dental hygiene thomsonthe ameloblastswhich produce enamel, are destroyed once enamel formation extended essay nelson mandela complete and thus cannot later regenerate enamel after its destruction. On the other hand, dentin is produced continuously throughout life by odontoblastswhich reside at the border essay environmental the pulp and dentin.
Since odontoblasts are present, a stimulus, such as caries, can trigger a biologic response. These defense mechanisms include the formation of sclerotic and tertiary dentin. In dentin from the deepest layer to the enamel, the distinct areas affected by caries are the advancing front, the zone of bacterial penetration, and the zone of destruction. The zones of bacterial penetration and destruction are the locations of invading bacteria and ultimately the decomposition of dentin. The zone of destruction case studies in dental hygiene thomson a more mixed bacterial population where proteolytic enzymes have destroyed the organic matrix. The innermost dentin caries has been reversibly attacked because the collagen matrix is not severely damaged, giving it potential for repair.
The structure of dentin is an arrangement of microscopic channels, called dentinal tubuleswhich radiate outward from the pulp chamber to case studies in dental hygiene thomson exterior cementum or enamel border. The disposable paper product - market research report also allow caries to progress case studies in dental hygiene thomson. In response, the fluid inside the tubules brings immunoglobulins from the immune system to fight the bacterial infection.
At the same time, there is an increase of mineralization of the surrounding tubules. In addition, as the acid from the bacteria demineralizes the hydroxyapatite crystals, calcium and phosphorus are released, allowing for case studies in dental hygiene thomson precipitation of more crystals which fall deeper into the dentinal tubule.